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How France created a university to rival MIT
A HUGE MODERNIST university campus is rising amid farmland on a plateau south of the French capital. The University of Paris-Saclay, formally launched this yr, merges some 20 higher-education and analysis establishments. It has a instructing and analysis workers of 9,000, catering to 48,000 college students—greater than Harvard or Stanford. Specialised in science, it’s France’s try to create, in President Emmanuel Macron’s phrases, an “MIT à la française”. Such ambition as soon as appeared fanciful. But in August Paris-Saclay stormed into the Shanghai world university rating, grabbing 14th place general and third in Europe after Cambridge and Oxford. It took the highest worldwide spot in maths.
France’s two-tier higher-education system baffles outsiders. Three-fifths of its 2.7m college students are enrolled in universities. These are public. Till lately they didn’t choose undergraduates at entry; they cost no tuition bar a small enrolment payment, and are sometimes sneered at as second-rate. An elite minority, in the meantime, attend selective grandes écoles, for which entrance exams require at the least two years of post-secondary-school cramming. To confuse issues additional, analysis is historically carried out not in universities or grandes écoles however in specialised public institutes.
Through the years, this uncommon construction has led to a lot French frustration about international perceptions. The nation has world-class engineering colleges, economics departments and mathematicians. After America, France has extra Fields medal-winners for maths than every other nation. But its fragmented system—partly down to the deliberate splitting of huge universities after the 1968 pupil protests—has left it under-performing in world rankings and missing international star attraction. In 2007 Valérie Pécresse, then the colleges minister, started to give them extra independence so as to encourage collaboration and scale. A world jury was invited to award huge public budgets to promising merger initiatives. Over a decade later, these new big rebranded universities, together with Paris-Saclay, are the consequence.
Like all mergers, forming Paris-Saclay entailed years of squabbling. Initially, Polytechnique, France’s high engineering grande école, was to be a part of. However it feared shedding its popularity for excellence if engulfed by a a lot larger university. Researchers from all member establishments had to agree to publish underneath the brand new identify so as to obtain scale and renown. As bickering continued, a nationwide audit concluded in early 2017 that your entire merger challenge was “deadlocked”. Later that yr the newly elected Mr Macron stepped in, realising that the brand new university would have to go forward with out Polytechnique. Its ensuing success, says Laurent Bigorgne, director of the Institut Montaigne, a think-tank, “is nearly the revenge of the colleges over the grandes écoles.”
Sylvie Retailleau, president of Paris-Saclay, factors out that these grandes écoles and area of interest scientific-research institutes that did be a part of have in actual fact retained a separate id, a bit like college departments. “Respect for variety is our energy,” she says, even when it can take time to get used to a new twin id and acquire recognition from the Parisian elite with its highly effective alumni networks. Within the meantime, Paris-Saclay is having fun with its second. A decade in the past, French educationalists would lecture outsiders on how meaningless world rankings have been for his or her increased schooling. Now the French have begun to crack the system, and are praising the consequence.■
This text appeared within the Europe part of the print version underneath the headline “Saclay sacré”